Published: May 26th, 2008
Revised: December 25th, 2009
This mold reference provides the most current and comprehensive discussion on the basic practice of identifying mold damage, the evaluation of the samples that are collected, and the process of remediation. Its twenty chapters cover the underlying principles and background of evaluation and control, building evaluation, data interpretation, remediation and control, plus appendices containing advanced perspectives in mold prevention and control, and images of exterior and interior building mold. This extensive management of indoor mold discussion was written by expert industrial hygiene practitioners, academics and government officials and scientists scrutinized by external peer review. Innovative methods and approaches for each assessed situation are provided.
Published: May 3rd, 2008
Revised: August 4th, 2009
The influence of sampling duration on recovery of culturable fungi was compared using the Andersen N6 and the Reuter Centrifugal Sampler (RCS). Samplers were operated side-by-side, collecting 15 samples each of incrementally increasing duration (1–15 min). From 270 samples collected, 26 fungal genera were recovered. Species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Penicillium and Ulocladium were most frequent. Data adjusted to CFU/m³ were fitted to a Poisson regression model with a logarithmic link function and evaluated for the impact of sampling time on qualitative and quantitative recovery of fungi, both as individual taxa and in aggregate according to xerotolerance. Significant differences between the two samplers were observed for xerotolerant and normotolerant moulds, as well as Aspergillus spp. and Cladosporium spp. With the exception of Cladosporium spp., overall recoveries were higher with the RCS. When the Andersen N6 was used, the recovered levels of Cladosporium spp. and unidentified yeasts were reduced significantly at sampling times over 6 min. Similarly, when the RCS was used, recovery of Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Ulocladium spp., unidentified yeasts, and low water activity fungi declined significantly at sampling times over 6 min.
Published: May 1st, 2008
Revised: August 4th, 2009
The fungus Baudoinia compniacensis colonizes the exterior surfaces of a range of materials, such as buildings, outdoor furnishings, fences, signs, and vegetation, in regions subject to periodic exposure to low levels of ethanol vapour, such as those in the vicinity of distillery aging warehouses and commercial bakeries. Here we investigated the basis of ethanol metabolism in Baudoinia and investigate the role of ethanol in cell germination and growth. Germination of mycelia of Baudoinia was enhanced by up to roughly 1 d exposure to low ethanol concentrations, optimally 10 ppm when delivered in vapour form and 5 mM in liquid form. However, growth was strongly inhibited following exposure to higher ethanol concentrations for shorter durations (e.g., 1.7 M for 6 h). We found that ethanol was catabolized into central metabolism via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ACDH). Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) were active in cells grown on glucose, but these enzymes were not expressed when ethanol was provided as a sole or companion carbon source. The glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) activities observed in cells grown on acetate were comparable to those reported for other microorganisms. By replenishing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, it is likely that the functionality of the glyoxylate cycle is important in the establishment of luxuriant growth of Baudoinia compniacensis on ethanol-exposed, nutrient- deprived, exposed surfaces. In other fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ADH II catalyses the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde, which then can be metabolized via the TCA cycle. ADH II is known to be strongly repressed in the presence of glucose.