Published: April 11th, 2017
Revised: April 11th, 2017
Sporometrics’ crop sampler (the Spornado) was featured in Spudsmart Magazine the Spring 2017 issue. Eugenia Banks worked with the Potato board during the growing season of 2016 to test the Spornado’s ability to detect late blight.
Published: April 4th, 2017
Revised: April 4th, 2017
Sporometrics is pleased to announce another publication, this time on Mosquito Microbial Communities in the Frontiers in Microbiology. This is work that comes out of our Mosquito surveillance work with the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The publication can be found here and includes our very own Amin Maharaj and Dr. James Scott.
Symbiotic microbial communities augment host phenotype, including defense against pathogen carriage and infection. We sampled the microbial communities in 11 adult mosquito host species from six regions in southern Ontario, Canada over 3 years. Of the factors examined, we found that mosquito species was the largest driver of the microbiota, with remarkable phylosymbiosis between host and microbiota. Seasonal shifts of the microbiome were consistently repeated over the 3-year period, while region had little impact. Both host species and seasonal shifts in microbiota were associated with patterns of West Nile virus (WNV) in these mosquitoes. The highest prevalence of WNV, with a seasonal spike each year in August, was in the Culex pipiens/restuans complex, and high WNV prevalence followed a decrease in relative abundance of Wolbachia in this species. Indeed, mean temperature, but not precipitation, was significantly correlated with Wolbachia abundance. This suggests that at higher temperatures Wolbachia abundance is reduced leading to greater susceptibility to WNV in the subsequent generation of C. pipiens/restuans hosts. Different mosquito genera harbored significantly different bacterial communities, and presence or abundance of Wolbachia was primarily associated with these differences. We identified several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Wolbachia that drive overall microbial community differentiation among mosquito taxa, locations and timepoints. Distinct Wolbachia OTUs were consistently found to dominate microbiomes of Cx. pipiens/restuans, and of Coquilletidia perturbans. Seasonal fluctuations of several other microbial taxa included Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus, Methylobacterium, Asaia, Pantoea, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas, and Mycoplasma. This suggests that microbiota may explain some of the variation in vector competence previously attributed to local environmental processes, especially because Wolbachia is known to affect carriage of viral pathogens.
Published: March 28th, 2017
Revised: March 28th, 2017
Sporometrics was selected to participate in the Canadian AgriTech Mission to Brazil led by Global Affairs Canada and NRC-IRAP. The Mission has been organized by Global Affairs Canada (GAC) through the Consulate General of Canada in São Paulo and the National Research Council Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP). The goals are to establish industrial R&D collaboration and co-development opportunities in the AgriTech sector between Canadian and Brazilian companies leading to future commercial benefits for Canada and Brazil. The Mission will take place on the margins of the “AgriShow Ribeirão” (www.agrishow.com.br), the largest trade event in Latin America for farm equipment and technologies.
Target contacts will include senior executives, managers, investors, government representatives, service providers, research centres/universities and commercial partners. The Mission will focus on establishing strategic contacts, generating business through meetings and promoting networking tackling priority areas such as Automation of the agriculture value-chain; precision agriculture technologies; management (of the farm & production); traceability (livestock, grains, fruits); grains handling and storage management technologies; pest control; crop monitoring, soil analysis.
The mission will comprise briefings, networking events with the local AgriTech and agriculture community, and partnership development one-on-one meeting sessions with Brazilian counterparts. This mission will provide Canadian companies with a unique opportunity to establish a personal relationship with key Brazilian business counterparts, which is required for doing business in Brazil and will enable further collaboration, co-development and business in the near future.
Published: March 23rd, 2017
Revised: March 23rd, 2017
IDRC/DFATD Project Title and Number: Improving livelihoods of resource-poor coconut smallholder farmers threatened by an emerging lethal yellowing disease of coconut in the coastal region of Côte d’Ivoire – ‘Fighting lethal disease for coconut farmers’. No. 107789.
Project Dates: August 1st 2014 to January 31st 2017; 2.5 years.
Project Budget: $2, 586, 916 CAD.
Location of Study: Grand-Lahou, Côte d’Ivoire.
Research Organizations involved in the study: Sporometrics Inc., Canada; National Centre of Agronomic Research (CNRA), Côte d’Ivoire; University Nangui Abrogoua (UNA), Côte d’Ivoire; National Agency for Aid and Rural Development (ANADER), Côte d’Ivoire; Council for Scientific Research Program – Oil Palm Research Institute – Coconut Research Program (CSIR-OPRI), Ghana; University of Toronto, Canada.
Project Leader: Dr. Yaima Arocha Rosete (Sporometrics Inc.).
Principal Investigators in Côte d’Ivoire: Prof. Taky Hortense Atta Diallo (UNA), and Prof. Jean Louis Konan Konan (CNRA)
To provide and communicate new needed information to allow authorities, policy makers, stakeholders and farmers to better control, Lethal Yellowing disease in Côte d’Ivoire.
1) To better understand the bio-ecology and epidemiology of the Côte d’Ivoire lethal yellowing phytoplasma, and the environmental and socio-economic impact of the disease on the coconut industry.
2) To develop and adapt control strategies to reduce the impact of the Côte d’Ivoire lethal yellowing.
3) To strengthen local capacity to diagnose, implement and disseminate control strategies, and empowering women’s role in addressing gender inequity in Grand-Lahou.
Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) plays a paramount role in the export economy of Côte d’Ivoire, which is the top African exporter of copra coconut oil to Europe and West Africa. Coconut production totals 55,000 tons of copra/year equivalent to 550,000,000 nuts/year. Coconut is cultivated on approximately 50,000 ha along the Ivoirian coastal littoral zone, and it is a critical source of employment and income for around 85, 000 smallholder coconut farmers in Grand-Lahou. In 2013, the Côte d’Ivoire lethal yellowing disease (CILY) was officially reported and associated with a phytoplasma, namely 16SrXXII-B, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola’-related strains. Lethal yellowing diseases caused by a phytoplasma affect coconut and over 40 other palm species, and have decimated the coconut industries of many countries in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia. In Grand-Lahou, over 400 ha of coconut groves have been destroyed by CILY, and other 7,000 ha are under severe threat. A summary of significant research findings, key advances, outcomes and innovative outputs derived from the IDRC-DFATD project is herein provided.
The CILY phytoplasma was confirmed in over 80 % of the CILY-affected coconut palms in Grand-Lahou. Its epidemiological origin and spread was hypothesized from either the Central or West Regions in Ghana, where the Cape St. Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD) phytoplasma destroyed the coconut industry in the last 20 years. For the CILY phytoplasma, a new leafhopper genus and species, Nedotepa curta Dimitriev was found as its potential vector, and six plant species from five botanical families identified as its alternative hosts, which may play a critical role in disease spread. The CILY phytoplasma was found in 30 % of symptomless palms, as well as, in mixed infection with a phytoplasma of group 16SrI ‘Ca. Phytoplasma asteris’ leading to a more complex epidemiology and control of the disease.
Nine promising coconut varieties were recommended for long-term resistance trials in pilot farms in Grand-Lahou and Ghana. New field and laboratory diagnostics were developed for the early and specific detection of the CILY phytoplasma to support surveillance, plant health, and disease resistance screening. A new disease management plan, and a 3-year rehabilitation plan were generated and delivered to farmers, stakeholders and policy makers as factsheets, a farmer field mini-guide and policy briefs. The assessment of the socio-economic impact of CILY revealed over 90 % of farmer illiteracy, and high inequality levels for women with limited access to land, training and market. An econometric model was developed to predict the land use change of the coconut cultivated area to re-allocating the CILY-devastated areas and help reviving the coconut industry in Grand-Lahou.
Bacterial and fungal endophytes with biocontrol potential were identified for the CILY phytoplasma, as well as, a new bacterial endosymbiont within N. curta, which may be used for a long-term vector control. A new species of parasitoid of the genus Anagrus was identified parasitizing the eggs of N. curta, which opens new ways of vector control, and a new source of income for farmers due to its very easy-to-implement massive rearing. Field management recommendations included intercropping coconut with plantain for a higher revenue, and to apply poultry manure, which boosts flower development and leads to a higher volume of seednuts for farmers.
Nine training-courses on field and laboratory basic diagnosis, and advanced technology for phytoplasma research, and twelve workshops, including Gender Workshops were held in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Canada; one of them with the attendance of the Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research of Côte d’Ivoire. Six Ivoirian MSc students and 1 PhD graduated, and four of the MSc students are already involved in PhD programs. Project scientific results have been presented in three international conferences, and officially published as full research papers in six high impact factor scientific journals.
New approaches were innovated to increase disease awareness in farmers, stakeholders and policy makers, as well as to empower women within the coconut production chain, which included: field schools, plant clinics, Women Groups and Women Coconut Fairs. Eight field schools trained 1,960 farmers (1,568 men, 392 women), 180 extensionists, and around 700 families on farming and disease resistance assessment, which exceeded the expected figures. Ten plant clinics mobilized 671 farmers, villagers, and processors (478 men, 193 women); and addressed plant disease queries not only in coconut, but also in over twenty other crops such as cacao, cassava, citrus, okra, coffee, peanut, yam, beet, plantain, tomato, maize, etc. The Major and Prefect of Grand-Lahou, the Canadian Ambassador in Côte d’Ivoire, Representatives of the Ivoirian High Education and Scientific Research Ministry, and ten village Chiefs attended the plant clinic held at Braffedon in April 2016. Eight Women Coconut Fairs mobilized 550 participants (390 men and 160 women), and allowed new opportunities of marketing and small businesses for them. Women sell out their coconut products, from crafted and food products, cosmetics to home furniture, whose number increased from 14 to 26 (64 %) from 2015 to 2016. Women coconut farmers organized themselves for the very first time in Grand-Lahou in six Women Groups, which are currently planting cassava yards as a new source of income. New recent findings include the identification of the CILY phytoplasma infecting cassava orchards nearby the CILY-affected coconut farms, which impacts directly on food security for the smallholder coconut farmers of Grand-Lahou.
Project outcomes and outputs have significantly contributed to the knowledge of palm lethal yellowing diseases for the phytoplasma community. Results reach out the coconut farming community in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mozambique, and other countries of Central America and the Caribbean, and South Asia and the Pacific affected by lethal yellowing diseases. Project outcomes and outputs are an example of how well-orchestrated gender and communication strategies were successfully implemented to empower women to support family income and nutrition; and how to engage natural and social scientists, as well as, stakeholders and policy makers in helping farmers to improve their livelihoods, and rescue the Ivoirian coconut industry. The project strengthened collaboration ties among scientists from Canada, Ghana, Italy, France, and Mozambique, and enhanced the international image of Canada supporting research in Africa. Details are provided at COWALY website (http://cowaly.com/progress).
Acknowledgement: This work was carried out with the aid of a grant from Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC), www.idrc.ca, and with financial support from the Government of Canada, provided through Foreign Affairs Canada (GAC), www.international.gc.ca.
Published: March 10th, 2017
Revised: March 29th, 2017
Mycobacterium chimaera (M. chimaera) is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) which has been implicated as a causative agent of a small number of infections post-surgery. NTM are common inhabitants of the environment and have been cultured from water, soil, and animal sources worldwide. They are known to be opportunistic pathogens, mostly affecting the immunocompromised or immunodeficient. M. chimaera has been found in heater-cooler devices used to regulate patients’ blood temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass. Alerts from Health Canada, CDC, FDA and other health authorities worldwide have been issued based on reports suggesting that invasive infections have resulted from exposure to aerosolized M. chimaera from heater cooler units during cardiac surgery.
Given the dependency on heater-cooler units for improving surgical outcomes, there is a critical need to reduce downtime. The standard, culture-based analytical techniques are very useful for the identification of Mycobacterium in general, but have the limitations of not always being specific and taking up to four weeks for results. The need arose for a fast testing solution that the traditional culture techniques could not meet; to determine the baseline contamination of devices as well as to confirm disinfection. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based tests specific for M. chimaera decreases testing time from several weeks to several hours by allowing the direct detection of M. chimaera DNA from mixed samples without the need for culturing.
Mycobacterium chimaera testing by RT-PCR
Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) is a rapid and accurate tool for the detection of M. chimaera DNA. We developed a M. chimaera RT-PCR test based on the methods from a research group at the University of Melbourne. It has been internally validated using the M. chimaera type strain and real-world samples. This method represents the state-of-the-art having been released publicly in February of 2017.
It is important to note that this method cannot distinguish between living and dead cellular material. Analytical results will be reported as positive or negative for M. chimaera DNA.